Biomedical expertise is necessary but not sufficient for conducting meaningful research. Among students (and not only) there is a feeling of gaps in the education on how to conduct science as an integrated process from hypothesis creation to interpretation and publication of results. This calls for more discussion about philosophical background of scientific evidence, about methodology in biomedical research, and handling of misconduct in the scientific context. The first step to positively influence scientific thinking as well as problem diagnosing and solving in the biomedical research is to allow for academic discussions regarding fundamental philosophy behind the scientific research (especially hypothetico-deductive method and Neyman-Pearson method of hypothesis-testing) already during the education. Further, the fact that the fields of biomedical research are especially vulnerable to scientific misconduct/misbehaviour stresses the importance of integrating new educational forms into the curricula of academic and research institutions. It can be argued that if students are taught to critically think about each step of the research process and how it will affect all other steps, much scientific misconduct could be avoided. This all will contribute to improving the quality of science.
postgraduate education, scientific integrity, scientific misconduct, biomedical research, philosophy of science